# Python Conditional Statements for Everyday Use

Python conditional statements are an essential tool for any programmer, enabling them to control the flow of their code based on specific conditions. In this blog post, we’ll explore useful Python conditional statements that you can use in your everyday tasks. We’ll also provide in-depth code examples and external resources to help you understand and implement these concepts.

## Mastering Python Conditional Statements

### If Statement

The simplest form of a Python conditional statement is the `if` statement. It tests a specific condition and executes the code block only if the condition is `True`.

``````
if condition:
# Code to execute if condition is True
``````

For example, let’s check if a number is positive:

``````
number = 5

if number > 0:
print("The number is positive.")
``````

### Else Statement

The `else` statement follows an `if` statement and is used to execute a code block if the condition in the `if` statement is `False`.

``````
if condition:
# Code to execute if condition is True
else:
# Code to execute if condition is False
``````

Let’s extend the previous example to handle negative numbers as well:

``````
number = -3

if number > 0:
print("The number is positive.")
else:
print("The number is negative.")
``````

### Elif Statement

The `elif` (short for “else if”) statement allows you to check multiple conditions in a single `if` statement. It is placed between the `if` and `else` statements.

``````
if condition1:
# Code to execute if condition1 is True
elif condition2:
# Code to execute if condition2 is True
else:
# Code to execute if none of the conditions are True
``````

For example, let’s categorize a number as positive, negative, or zero:

``````
number = 0

if number > 0:
print("The number is positive.")
elif number < 0:
print("The number is negative.")
else:
print("The number is zero.")
``````

### Nested If Statements

You can nest `if` statements inside other `if` statements to create more complex conditional structures.

``````
if condition1:
# Code to execute if condition1 is True

if condition2:
# Code to execute if condition2 is True
``````

For example, let’s check if a number is even and positive:

``````
number = 4

if number > 0:
if number % 2 == 0:
print("The number is positive and even.")
``````

### Conditional Expressions

A conditional expression (also known as a ternary operator) is a shorter way to write an `if-else` statement. It allows you to write a simple `if-else` statement in a single line.

``````
value_if_true if condition else value_if_false
``````

For example, let’s assign a string based on the sign of a number:

``````
number = -2
sign = "positive" if number > 0 else "negative"
print(sign)  # Output: negative
``````

### Boolean Operators

Python provides boolean operators such as `and`, `or`, and `not` to combine multiple conditions in a single statement.

The `and` operator requires both conditions to be `True` to execute the code block:

``````
if condition1 and condition2:
# Code to execute if both conditions are True
``````

The `or` operator requires at least one of the conditions to be `True` to execute the code block:

``````
if condition1 or condition2:
# Code to execute if at least one of the conditions is True
``````

The `not` operator negates the condition:

``````
if not condition:
# Code to execute if the condition is False
``````

For example, let’s check if a number is outside a specific range:

``````
number = 15
lower_limit = 10
upper_limit = 20

if number < lower_limit or number > upper_limit:
print("The number is outside the range.")
else:
print("The number is inside the range.")
``````

### Short Circuit Evaluation

Python uses short-circuit evaluation when evaluating boolean expressions. This means that if the result of the expression can be determined by evaluating the first condition, the second condition is not evaluated.

This can be useful to avoid errors or unnecessary calculations:

``````
if condition1 and expensive_function():
# Code to execute if both conditions are True
``````

In this example, if `condition1` is `False`, the `expensive_function()` is not called.

### In and Not In Operators

The `in` and `not in` operators are used to check if a value is present in a sequence, such as a list, tuple, or string.

``````
if value in sequence:
# Code to execute if value is in the sequence
``````
``````
if value not in sequence:
# Code to execute if value is not in the sequence
``````

For example, let’s check if a number is in a list of prime numbers:

``````
number = 7
prime_numbers = [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19]

if number in prime_numbers:
print("The number is a prime.")
else:
print("The number is not a prime.")
``````

### Pass Statement

The `pass` statement is a null operation that can be used as a placeholder when a statement is required syntactically but no action is needed. It can be used in `if` statements, loops, or function definitions.

``````
if condition:
pass  # Do nothing
else:
# Code to execute if the condition is False
``````

For example, let’s log an error message only if a condition is not met:

``````
error_condition = False

if error_condition:
pass
else:
print("Error: The condition was not met.")
``````

## Mastering Python Conditional Statements

### Nested Conditional Statements

You can nest multiple `if` statements inside each other to create more complex conditions. Nested `if` statements can be useful when you need to evaluate multiple conditions in sequence.

``````
if condition1:
if condition2:
# Code to execute if both conditions are True
else:
# Code to execute if condition1 is True and condition2 is False
else:
# Code to execute if condition1 is False
``````

For example, let’s check if a number is positive and even:

``````
number = 6

if number > 0:
if number % 2 == 0:
print("The number is positive and even.")
else:
print("The number is positive but not even.")
else:
print("The number is not positive.")
``````

### Error Handling with Conditional Statements

Conditional statements can be used to handle errors or unexpected situations in your code. For example, you can check if a variable has a valid value before using it in an operation:

``````
if variable is not None:
# Code to execute if variable has a valid value
else:
print("Error: The variable is None.")
``````

For more advanced error handling, consider using Python’s built-in exception handling mechanisms with `try` and `except` blocks.

### Conclusion

Mastering Python conditional statements is essential for writing effective and efficient code. In this guide, we covered the fundamentals of conditional statements, including `if`, `elif`, and `else` statements, as well as the ternary operator, boolean operators, short-circuit evaluation, and the `in` and `not in` operators. We also discussed nested conditional statements and error handling with conditional statements. To further improve your Python skills, check out our other comprehensive guides on web scraping, list comprehension, and the Python interpreter.

Don’t forget to explore our Python category for more in-depth tutorials and guides to help you become a Python expert.